Bibliography of Gambian Related Publications
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Title: Desertification In The Gambia: A Study Unit.
Source: Masters Thesis (M.A.)--DALHOUSIE UNIVERSITY (CANADA), 1993. 190 p.; Source: Masters Abstracts International, Volume: 32-06, page: 1501.
Author(s): CEESAY, LAMIN MBYE.
Abstract: The thesis uses the Johnson rationale of curriculum development to generate a curriculum unit for study to be used at the School of Education, Gambia College. Intended learning outcomes (ILOs) are formed for the course. These are a product of consideration of relevant cultural content concerning desertification in light of the needs of society and students as reflected in surveys of political leaders, Gambian farmers and students of Gambia College. The study unit is presented as a means to equip student teachers to participate at the village level in the fight against desertification in The Gambia. ISBN: 031587449X
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Title: Community Education And Its Role In The Gambia: An Assessment Of The Priorities Of Three Farming Communities.
Source: Thesis (PH.D.)--UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, 1992. ; This item is not available from University Microfilms International. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 53-04, Section: A, page: 0993. Chair: WILLIAM M. RIDEOUT, JR.
Author(s): SANNEH, LAMIN O.
Abstract: In the context of community education, the purpose of this study was five fold: (1) To analyze the goals and objectives selected by communities; (2) to describe how priority assessment for community education emerged in The Gambia; (3) to identify a community education model program which best fits the situation in The Gambia; (4) to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses in implementing such a model for community education; and (5) to try to construct a revised improvement model that can be recommended for The Gambia. The overriding purpose was to further a sound, viable, and dynamic community education system able to change and adapt to the needs and desires of the population while allowing for the people themselves to participate in those decisions which directly affect their lives, their communities, and the nation. Most of the research was centered around the review of available literature pertaining to educational models and programs that developing countries have utilized. The successful strategies that emerged from the literature review, the analysis of findings and the survey instrument were then employed to assess the situation in The Gambia. A total of 180 subjects (90 women and 90 men) completed the survey instrument designed by the investigator to be used among the Gambian farming population in nine villages around three agricultural stations: Yundum, Jenoi, Sapu. A computer was utilized to score the data for analysis. Finding indicated that respondents in all three locations placed a premium on local involvement and thought that the primary education goals for rural community development should be to increase agricultural productivity for both consumption and income. Although more concerned about upgrading their standards of living, respondents have continued to improve their lives mainly through applying their own "tesito"/self-help programs to address some of their basic needs. The study recommended that the rural poor should be allowed to participate in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of programs designed for them; also such programs should: take into account the differences between agricultural districts in terms of economic and social developments, and correlate government departmental efforts to promote long-term national development. (Copies available exclusively from Micrographics Department, Doheny Library, USC, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0182.).
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Title: Comparative self-concept variances of school children in two English-speaking West African nations.
Source: Journal of Psychology 1990 Mar Vol 124(2) 169-176
Author(s): Alawiye, Osman; Alawiye, Catherine Z.; Thomas, John I.
Abstract: Examined the self-concepts (SCs) of 195 Ghanaian and 156 Gambian elementary school children in Grades 2, 4, 6, and 8 in the areas of physical maturity, peer relations, academic success, and school adaptiveness. The independent variables were sex, grade level (GL), and nationality. GL was the most potent variable in the SC development of both groups, whereas the sex variable indicated interaction with GL only in Gambian Ss. The self-esteem of the Ss in both nations in the areas of physical maturity, peer relations, and academic success was relatively high and stable. SC developmental patterns showed differences across grade levels in the 4 SC areas being tested. The SC developmental patterns of these Ss were similar to those of school children in the US, Mexico, and Chile. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1990 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)
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Title: Attitudes of English-speaking West-African parents and teachers: Implications for elementary school counselors. Special Issue: Cross-cultural counseling.
Source: Elementary School Guidance & Counseling 1989 Apr Vol 23(4) 260-265
Author(s): Alawiye, Osman; Alawiye, Catherine S.; Thomas, John I.
Abstract: 50 parents and teachers in Accra, Ghana, and Banjul, Gambia, evaluated 7 statements regarding the relationship between self-concept (SCO) and academic achievement (AA). Ss felt that there is a positive relationship between SCO and AA, and they viewed the enrichment of AA as a desirable academic goal. There was no consensus that poor AA was related to negative SCO. The need for cultural sensitivity in guidance counselors trying to develop a positive SCO in students is noted. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)
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Title: Curriculum Conceptions Of Home Economics Educators From Selected Anglophone West African Countries.
Source: Thesis (PH.D.)--UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND COLLEGE PARK, 1987. 186 p.; Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 49-04, Section: A, page: 0750. Co-directors: JOSEPH LUETKEMEYER, JR.; FRANCINE HULTGREN.
Author(s): ROY-MACAULAY, ELLALINE ABODUNRIN.
Abstract: The major problem of this research was to determine the curriculum conceptions that Anglophone West African students hold concerning Home Economics Education. These conceptions of curriculum were obtained from eighteen female home economics students from Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, and the Gambia. These students were pursuing degree programs in colleges and universities in the United States. The reasons for their curriculum preferences, and barriers to implementing their preferred curriculum conceptions were also investigated. The curriculum conceptions were technical, cognitive developmental, and personal relevance (Brown, 1979). These conceptions were viewed in relation to the following three elements: (1) Current and preferred curriculum conceptions; (2) Reasons for preferred curriculum conceptions; (3) Barriers to implementing the preferred curriculum conceptions. Recommendations for future curriculum development in the selected Anglophone West African countries were made based on the data provided by the students. Professional/biographical information was also obtained from the students. The descriptive survey design was employed in the research. A self-report questionnaire titled 'The Curriculum Preference Questionnaire' was used to collect the information for the research. The research data were presented in tables, showing frequency of responses and percentages according to the following four sections: (1) Background characteristics of the respondents; (2) Current and preferred curriculum conceptions; (3) Reasons for curriculum conceptions; (4) Barriers to implementing the preferred curriculum conceptions. Several conclusions were derived from the research data. The students' responses were varied with regard to their current and preferred curriculum conceptions. The majority of the eighteen students identified the technical curriculum conception as the current conception and the cognitive developmental conception as the preferred curriculum conception in their home countries. It was recommended that alternative curriculum conceptions be considered in curriculum development in the Anglophone West African countries and that persons be educated about alternative curriculum conceptions.
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Title: Neglected Youth
Source: West Africa, No. 3632 (April, 20, 1987), 757-760
Author(s): Sillah, Baba
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Title: Sharing Childhood Across an Ocean; Peace Corps Partnership Links Schools
Source: NEA Today, Vol. 6 (September 1987), 25
Author(s): Power, Jane
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Title: Transition From Primary To Secondary In The Gambia: The Impact Of The Common Entrance Examination On Teaching, Learning And The Curriculum In The Upper Primary School.
Source: Thesis (PH.D.)--UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH (UNITED KINGDOM), 1987. 407 p.; Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 49-02, Section: A, page: 0240.
Author(s): BOJANG, YAHYA EBRIMA.
Abstract: Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This dissertation investigates the impact of Gambia's secondary school selection examination on the process and content of upper primary school education. Opinions were sought from respondent groups in The Gambia in order to illuminate more fully the various issues. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, interviews and written exercises from six samples: primary school heads; parents (of the Primary Six children); CEE class teachers; Form One pupils (CEE passes); Primary Six pupils (CEE preparation class) and educational administrators. Major topics studied were the influences of primary leavers' employment prospects on examination; attitudes towards the CEE and primary schooling in general; and distortions in the process and content of upper primary education, as a consequence of these pressures. It is concluded that: (1) Employment prospects for primary leavers are seen to be much poorer than prospects for those passing the CEE. (2) People hold unfavourable perceptions of the level of education achieved at the end of primary schooling. (3) The CEE is approached in a wholly instrumental way. (4) Orientations to primary schooling outcomes are more instrumental than intrinsic. (5) There are distortions of recommended teaching and learning processes and of the content of the primary curriculum. (6) Finally, these effects hold fairly equally in both rural and urban regions of the country. These conclusions are broadly in line with those of other researchers, although the similarity of perceptions from rural and urban samples, and the results concerning teachers' selective attention to different sub-groups of children were not as anticipated. The conclusions appear to have implications for the practice and content of primary schooling in The Gambia. In this regard, issues such as poor employment prospects for primary leavers and instrumental orientation to the CEE and primary schooling generally seem to influence parents, primary school heads, teachers and pupils to have more regard for the CEE than for teaching and learning related to the recommended primary curriculum. This practice distorts the aims, processes and content of the primary curriculum. These distortions could have social and economic implications as well. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).
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Title: The Self-Concept Of Children, And The Perceptions Of Parents And Teachers, From Schools In Ghana And Gambia.
Source: Thesis (PH.D.)--NEW MEXICO STATE UNIVERSITY, 1986. 182 p.; Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 48-01, Section: A, page: 0100.
Author(s): ALAWIYE, OSMAN.
Abstract: This study examined the self-concept of school children in grades two, four, six, and eight and the perceptions of parents and elementary school teachers from Ghana and Gambia. 351 school children, 100 parents and 100 teachers from Ghana and Gambia participated. The data were collected during the 1985/1986 school year. Research questions were: (1) Are there significant differences between the sexes either within the same grade or between the sexes across the grade levels of Ghanaian and Gambian school children as measured by the Student's Self-Assessment Inventory? (2) Are there significant differences by nationality between the sexes within the same grade level or between grade levels of Ghanaian and Gambian school children? In the perceptional study, the research questions posed were: (1) What are the perceptions of parents and elementary school teachers concerning the relationship between self-concept and academic performance? (2) Do parents and elementary school teachers perceive that schools should engage in developing the self-concept of school children? (3) What are the perceptions of parents and elementary school teachers concerning the relationship between a teacher's perception of a student and that student's academic performance?. The results of the self-concept study indicated that there were differences of self-concept levels among the children across grade level and nationality. The sex of the child seemed to play a minor role in determining his or her self-concept and seemed free of the self measures. A decline of the self-knowledge of eighth graders in the areas of academic success and school adaptiveness was detected among the Ghanaian and Gambian school children. The results of the perceptional study indicated that parents and teachers from both nations believed that there was a relationship between self-concept and achievement. The respondents also indicated that schools should engage in helping children develop positive self-concept. The implications concerning how schools should approach self-concept enhancement were not clear.
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Title: Urban Senegal and rural Gambia: Computer and community education programs.
Source: Childhood Education 1986 Jan-Feb Vol 62(3) 182-185
Author(s): Pagano, Alicia I.
Abstract: Two educational programs in West Africa are described: In Senegal, the Computer in Education project teaches LOGO in the schools in both French and Wolof, the major tribal language. In Gambia, Action Aid, a program of integrated rural development, contributes to national development in education, agriculture, rural water supply, and income-generating projects. Both programs are action-oriented, emphasize learning by doing, give the learner control over her/his own learning, consider the broader cultural environment, and seek to connect learning with the total life of the learner. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1987 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)
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Title: Educational Language Planning In The Gambia (Sociolinguistics, Mandinka, Africa).
Source: Thesis (PH.D.)--THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN - MADISON, 1985. 484 p.; Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 46-12, Section: A, page: 3634.
Author(s): BOWCOCK, DIANNE CARROLL.
Abstract: This research is a sociolinguistic study of the usage of the local languages in primary schools where the official medium-of-instruction is English. It asks: To what extent are the local languages used? What are the attitudes about their usage? And to what extent do these uses require change? Specifically, it sought to discover and describe what role Mandinka does play and can play in the educational process. The study first provides a sociolinguistic profile of the Gambia as it reveals issues of language planning in a developing nation. A history of the evolution of Gambian language policy follows. The creation of Gambia's Mandinka-as-a-medium educational program in the 1950's is fully discussed, as well as the Department of Education's inability to continue to implement this program. Finally the most recent policy which proposes to use the local languages in education is shown to be ambiguous. This ambiguity has led to several interpretations as to whether the local languages will be used as subjects in the curriculum or as media-of-instruction. The research uses classroom observation, censuses, and questionnaires to discuss children's language acquisition, teacher attitudes, and the extent of local language usage in education. The local languages are shown to be an important and necessary part of instruction at the lower levels. Consequently, the current language policy is shown to be non-harmonious with classroom language practice. The thesis concludes with an appraisal of two programs that have arisen as interpretations of the new policy. Neither of these is shown to be fully adequate given the available sociolinguistic information. An expansion of one of the programs is suggested. This alternative program would promote partial bilingualism and strive toward functional differentiation between the local languages and English in schools. Other implications of the research findings for such spheres as teacher placement and national language planning are also addressed. It is concluded that Gambian language policy has most often been guided by an orientation toward language which views it as a problem as contrasted with a "right" or "resource". This language-as-problem orientation has contributed toward keeping the local language minimally recognized in the schooling process.
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Title: Higher Education In The British Commonwealth Nations Of West Africa: Survey And Analysis Of Events In Gambia, Ghana, Nigeria, And Sierra Leone.
Source: Thesis (ED.D.)--PEABODY COLLEGE FOR TEACHERS OF VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY, 1985. 408 p.; Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 46-06, Section: A, page: 1526.
Author(s): AIBANGBEE, CHRISTOPHER.
Abstract: The purpose of this historical survey was to trace the development of higher education in the former British West African nations of Gambia, Ghana, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone from its origin to the present. It attempted to provide information concerning the development of higher educational issues, goals, purposes, and political and cultural trends in these countries. A documentary method was used with government publications, education commission reports, and United Nations Educational, Social, and Cultural Organization documents as the primary sources of data. Additional sources included books, articles, and scholarly papers on the former British West African countries. The study showed that higher education institutions in the former British West Africa generally have not been used effectively, because of their colonial heritage, to promote national integration and political stability. As British colonies, these countries were governed primarily through a system of indirect rule which, to an extent, inhibited or retarded the spread and development of higher education. On their attainment of independence, the countries' political leaders undertook an expansion of higher education to correct educational imbalances and facilitate socioeconomic development in a quest for modernization. This expansion has met with a multitude of complex educational and administrative problems related to physical facilities, research, staffing, and classroom equipment. These problems are the result of the deficiencies of colonial education. The traditional curricula remained unchanged throughout the colonial period and continue to affect the postindependence development of higher education in Gambia, Ghana, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone. As a result, higher education has failed to support the socioeconomic and technological changes necessary for the continued national development of these agriculturally based countries. It was suggested, therefore, that the present curricula offerings should be deemphasized in favor of curricula with greater emphasis on developing intermediate skills necessary to support upper level manpower in the areas of technical, commercial, agricultural, vocational, and home economics education.
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Title: The Role And Functions Of National Curriculum Development Centers In Zambia And The Gambia.
Source: Thesis (ED.D.)--UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, 1985. ; This item is not available from University Microfilms International. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 46-10, Section: A, page: 2910.
Author(s): SHANKANGA, ANDERSON BUNHAM.
Abstract: Purposes. The purposes of the study were to identify a conceptual framework for systematic curriculum change; to describe the functions of the national curriculum development centers in Zambia and The Gambia; to determine whether the curriculum development processes at the two centers reflect the identified conceptual framework; and to describe the factors which influenced curriculum change strategies in those centers. Procedures. The correlated case study technique was used, based on: a documentation review on the two curriculum development centers; a questionnaire completed by the center Directors; interviews with the center Directors and senior Ministry of Education officials; and observation of the center personnel. In addition, classroom visits were undertaken. The qualitative analysis technique was used to formulate answers to the four questions of the study. Findings and Conclusions. (1) The conceptual framework for curriculum change comprises program needs diagnosis, planning, development, implementation, and evaluation. (2) Curriculum development procedures in Zambia and The Gambia reflect the conceptual framework. (3) Administrative and political factors significantly influence curriculum change strategies in the two countries. Recommendations. (1) Curriculum personnel should receive training in applying the conceptual framework for curriculum change, including coordination and leadership techniques. (2) Other educational personnel should receive training in curriculum development procedures. (3) Research should be conducted into the conceptual framework, and the factors influencing the participation of various groups in its application. (Copies available exclusively from Micrographics Department, Doheny Library, USC, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0182.).
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Title: An Analysis Of Factors That Relate To Effective Use Of Radio In Nonformal Education In Developing Countries.
Source: Thesis (ED.D.)--UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS, 1984. 207 p.; Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 45-06, Section: A, page: 1615.
Author(s): SENIOR, MAXWELL STEWART.
Abstract: This study is concerned with the traditional approach to radio program development and its application to education. Of primary concern is the persistent practice of radio program designers of preparing programs for the audience with little or no provision for active involvement by the listeners. The study examines some critical elements that can promote the flow of information from the audience to radio program designers, thus strengthening audience participation and the positive outcomes of radio projects in nonformal education. Open broadcast, as a format for the use of radio in education, is discussed, and a review of the literature is undertaken. Open broadcast has been extensively applied in education primarily because of its use, without exception, in commercial broadcasting. However, as a format for creating long term behavioral changes, it is highly questionable. Conversely, Radio Learning Groups are also examined through a review of the literature and a critical analysis of three case studies. What evolves from this examination is that Radio Learning Groups, if carefully organized and supported, can be an exceptional vehicle for creating behavioral changes. Moreover, they can foster popular participation and the development of two-way communication channels between participants and program designers. In order to enhance collective listening, three primary elements are considered essential: careful assessment of the needs of the audience; the group leader; and the radio learning group. Other important factors are: organization and leadership, broadbase government support, and in a larger sense, the need for national media policies. Further analysis of a field-based study undertaken in The Gambia provided evidence to support the indispensable nature of these factors for effective outcome of radio learning groups. The study concludes with some recommended guidelines for radio education projects.
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Title: A Proposal For The Modification Of The Present High School Educational Programme In The Republic Of The Gambia.
Source: Thesis (PH.D.)--THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA, 1981. 207 p.; Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 42-11, Section: A, page: 4784.
Author(s): GOREE-NDIAYE, BURANG.
Abstract: Purposes. The purposes of the research, which resulted in this dissertation, were (1) to conduct an assessment of Gambian opinion concerning the country's high schools, and (2) to propose a new model for Gambian secondary education. Procedures. Between mid-January and mid-March, 1980, the author personally conducted a survey of Gambian high school students, teachers and administrators, and a number of community persons in the city of Banjul, the Gambian capital, to acquire the data base for the dissertation. The researcher employed survey questionnaires to carry out this exercise. The researcher collected 342 complete and usable returns, realizing a 53.9% rate of return. For supplemental information the researcher reviewed Government White Papers and reports on education and development. In addition, the researcher visited the seven high schools in the country and conducted interviews with eighty principals, teachers, students, and other educators and planners. Major Findings. The research revealed that: (1) The current high school educational programme in The Republic of The Gambia was not designed to respond to the lower- and middle-level manpower needs of the nation. (2) There is a need to modify and reorient Gambian high school education. (3) Occupation-oriented programmes need new emphasis and development. Major Proposal. A model programme developed by the author is suggested for adoption and implementation. The proposed programme provides a comprehensive and diversified composition, designed to incorporate and foster an all-round education for Gambian youth.
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Title: An Inquiry Into The Philosophy Of John Dewey With Special Reference To Its Bearing Upon The Educational Development Of The Gambia.
Source: Thesis (PH.D.)--WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY, 1981. 146 p.; Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 42-05, Section: A, page: 2000.
Author(s): SOHNA, MUHAMMAD A.
Abstract: John Dewey often advocated a redirection of philosophy, on certain occasions urging philosophers to be concerned with the problem of humanity and on others questioning the validity of traditional philosophical questions under the present conditions of science and modern life. He made enduring intellectual contributions in the traditional fields of philosophy, ranging from logic, ethics, metaphysics, aesthetics, and epistemology to education. Dewey defined philosophy as "the general theory of education," by which he meant that the general contribution of philosophy to a culture is ultimately determined by the fundamental difference it makes in the upbringing of its young. For him the purpose of thinking is to solve problems, and he believed that before a theory is pronounced either valid or invalid, it must be tested by being acted upon. To Dewey, therefore, philosophy represented reflection upon social ideals. While the views of a philosopher may be analyzed in various and meaningful ways, it has been deemed appropriate to concentrate upon Dewey's views concerning the utilization of the scientific method of inquiry in resolving social problems. Dewey's philosophy has unquestionably influenced twentieth-century thinking and discussion concerning educational theory and practice. Similarly, Kwame Nkrumah, regarded as perhaps the most influential African philosopher, made a profound and enduring intellectual contribution in the field of political philosophy and led one of the most significant revolutions of the twentieth century. He likewise recognized that men progress by acting in accordance with what is indicated by the use of the experimental method of inquiry. In this context, this research is therefore fundamentally dictated by a desire to provide a basis for an intelligent and constructive resolution of fundamental educational problems confronting The Gambia, such as the unbending rigidity of the present system of education inherited from British imperialism. Consequently, by placing such research in historical perspective, the development and consequences of colonial educational policy and practice may be effectively appraised and analyzed. Findings. (1) The foundation of colonial education was laid by Christian missionaries with the support and protection of the British Regime. The curriculum was imported and, as a consequence, incompatible with Gambian aspirations. (2) The British system of education was deliberately designed to produce a class society. It was an alien establishment and a logical extension of capitalism. (3) The colonial system of education was controlled by the colonizer and was isolated from the culture of the colonized, and African history was re-interpreted by the colonizer to facilitate the destruction of African heritage. (4) The colonial school did not educate Africans. It indoctrinated them. (5) The colonizer believed that he was intellectually and morally superior to the African. (6) The curriculum of the secondary school was largely determined by the Cambridge and London Matriculation Examinations which encouraged memorization and discouraged creative thinking, and education was used as a means of maintaining and strengthening the power of the colonial regime over the colonized territories. Major Recommendations. (1) The State, while recognizing the indigenously ethnic sentiments of the Gambian society, should undertake full responsibility for general education. The current system of education should be completely overhauled and education should be made compulsory for and available to all. (2) Efforts should be made to build into the system of education aspects of scientific techniques that will contribute to the cultivation of the scientific spirit of inquiry as it relates to the resolution of social problems. (3) The curriculum should reflect African heritage, and the external system of examination should be abolished. (4) The policy of The Gambia Government should be directed at creating a socialist society to permit a broad economic and cultural revolution, and, in the final analysis, conscious efforts should be made to promote truth and justice as the fundamental aims of education.
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Title: Changes In Educational Investments In Selected African Countries From 1965-1975; A Comparison With Developed Nations.
Source: Thesis (ED.D.)--UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN, 1980. 312 p.; Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 41-11, Section: A, page: 4555.
Author(s): EBURUOH, FELIX NNAMUKA.
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to compare the trends of educational investments (expenditures) in a sample of African countries, mainly the former British colonies in tropical Africa, including Gambia, Sierra Leone, Ghana, Nigeria, Uganda, Kenya, The United Republic of Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Swaziland, and Lesotho, with the trends in a selected group of non-African nations. The objectives specifically emphasize: (1) the relationships between governmental expenditures on education and other services in eleven African countries as compared with non-African nations from 1965 to 1975; (2) the trends of expenditures on education as compared with other services in both the African and non-African nations; (3) the implications of the differences in the trends of educational investments in relation to abilities and efforts of nations; (4) some basic internal developments in education in the selected sample of African nations. Simple trends are compared for each service from the base year to the final year: (1) The percent change of one year over the preceding year, and average for the entire period; with education indicated as "A",. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). percent change in "A" in 1966 over 1965, expressed mathematically as (DELTA). The average annual change from 1965 to 1975 is expressed mathematically as. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). (2) Another useful measure of change in "A" is the ratio. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). the percent change in 1975 over the base year 1965. (3) A comparative trend is computed for each category of services as related to the trend in the Gross National Product (GNP), to show the rate of change in expenditure of a given service compared with the rate of change in the GNP. This reflects the income elasticity (e) of the expenditure of the given service. (4) Investment in education, as is compared with other services, is computed in percent of the GNP that was expended on education for each year of the period under study. A similar computation is made for each of the other services under comparison. Selected findings are: (1) Governmental expenditures on education, when compared with the expenditures on other services in African and non-African nations, suggest differential policies among governments of nations to provide services to their citizens. (2) The relationships between education and other services reveal a great divergence in the proportions of income spent on educational and social needs. (3) The African nations portray a faster growth rate for education than for most of the other services. (4) Developed nations tend to allocate more governmental financial resources to education than do the African nations. (5) Serious gaps exist between the levels of educational development as well as economic progress in developed nations and developing countries. (6) The growth of education in developing countries is hampered and handicapped seriously by the lack of adequate information systems to provide knowledge for public understanding, policy making and planning. Selected suggestions are: (1) To educate leadership to meet the pressing needs of expanding the educational system, through: (a) The establishment of higher priority for special training programs in universities, teachers colleges, technical and other colleges; (b) Reconceptualization of the traditional expatriate staff practices and develop foreign exchange personnel programs for high level expertise in critical occupational levels. (2) Universities to be provided with sufficient funds to develop programs for research, teaching, and public services. (3) To establish an efficient information system to provide critical data and knowledge for public use.
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Title: The Impact Of Population Change On The Cost Of Primary School Education In The Gambia.
Source: Thesis (PH.D.)--UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA, 1979. 185 p.; Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 40-06, Section: A, page: 3024.
Author(s): LEWIS, ALEXANDER OREHMEKEH.
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Title: Humanistic Psychology And Education: Implications For Teaching In The Gambia.
Source: Thesis (ED.D.)--UNIVERSITY OF NORTHERN COLORADO, 1978. 108 p.; Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 39-01, Section: A, page: 0199.
Author(s): N'DURE, SASI SAMBA.
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Title: A Study Of The Real World Of The Beginning Teacher As An Important Aspect Of A Strategy For Planning For Teacher Supply And Continuity For The Gambia.
Source: Thesis (PH.D.)--UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO (CANADA), 1977. ; This item is not available from University Microfilms International. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 39-09, Section: A, page: 5459.
Author(s): JOOF, MAM BIRAM.
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